British Medical Journal 2 Smoking and pregnancy A number of studies have shown that tobacco use is a significant factor in miscarriages among pregnant smokers, and that it contributes to a number of other threats to the health of the fetus. That means that drugs cleared by these enzymes are cleared more quickly in smokers, which may result in the drugs not working.
All these factors make smokers more at risk of developing various forms of arteriosclerosis hardening of the arteries. Think of the expenses, doctor visits, medicines, lost school time, and often lost work time for the parent who must stay home with a sick child.
The impact of a smoking ban on hospital admissions for coronary heart disease. Chapter 3 presents studies of pathophysiologic responses to secondhand-smoke exposure that could be related to cardiovascular effects.
Some writings have stated that smoking can also increase mental concentration ; one study documents a significantly better performance on the normed Advanced Raven Progressive Matrices test after smoking.
Epidemiological studies around the world have investigated whether passive smoking causes elevations in lung cancer, heart disease, and other diseases.
As seen in Figurein the key studies examining smoking bans secondhand-smoke exposure could be chronic or intermittent prior to a smoking ban being implemented. Data from multiple studies suggest that anxiety disorders and depression play a role in cigarette smoking. Dose-response in passive smoking Hirayama, Another concern is the assessment of exposure to secondhand smoke itself.
A number of policy-related variables can differ among locations and affect the impact of a smoking ban. Also, cigarette smoking interferes with folliculogenesis, embryo transport, endometrial receptivity, endometrial angiogenesisuterine blood flow and the uterine myometrium.
The health consequences of involuntary smoking: In the United States and other developed countries, cigarette smoking causes most cases of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and a substantial fraction of coronary heart disease deaths Thun et al.
With the postwar rise in popularity of cigarette smoking came a virtual epidemic of lung cancer. Other considerations in the determination of causality historically have included temporality, strength of the association, dose—response relationship, identified biologic mechanism, specificity, coherence with existing theory and knowledge, experimental evidence, and alternate explanations.
Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 44 The health consequences of smoking.
At a minimum, the process leading to adoption of a ban is likely to generate awareness about smoking-related risks. Risks vary according to the amount of tobacco smoked, with those who smoke more at greater risk. Canadian Journal of Public Health 99 1: The results of population-based smoking-ban studies can be part of the evidence of a causal relationship between secondhand smoke and acute coronary events.
This is the safest thing to do for your children, other family members, pets, and guests. This includes aged smoke that lingers after smoking ceases. As the arteriosclerosis progresses, blood flows less easily through rigid and narrowed blood vessels, making the blood more likely to form a thrombosis clot.
Research has also shown that thirdhand smoke can damage human DNA in cell cultures and impact blood clotting in lab animals. The most heavily exposed passive smokers are active smokers who do not inhale.
Smoke-free legislation and hospitalizations for acute coronary syndrome. Those studies address the pathophysiology of any cardiovascular effects and the timeframes associated with any effects.
Exposure assessment in general is discussed in Chapter 2 and assessment in the individual studies in Chapter 6.
Children with asthma who are around secondhand smoke have more severe and frequent asthma attacks. It slightly increases the risk of neural tube defects.
The epidemiologic studies under consideration are not randomized controlled studies, so they are subject to several potential sources of bias and confounding that need to be taken into account in weighing the validity of their results. They also have fluid in their ears more often and have more operations to put in ear tubes for drainage.
Similarly, in cohort and case—control studies the exposures could be chronic or intermittent.
Issues related to controls are discussed in Chapter 7. The studies that examined the effect of smoking bans were inevitably not closed populations; people were free to move back and forth between areas with and without bans.Exposure to secondhand smoke raises the risk -- by as much as 30 percent -- that others will get lung cancer and many other types of cancer, it can lead to emphysema, and it is bad for your heart.
Secondhand smoke, also known as environmental tobacco smoke, is a complex mixture of gases and particles and includes smoke from burning cigarettes, cigars, and pipe tobacco (sidestream smoke) and exhaled mainstream smoke (Cal EPA, a; HHS, ). Even people who smoke fewer than five cigarettes a day can have early signs of cardiovascular disease.
1 Smoking damages blood vessels and can make them thicken and grow narrower. This makes your heart beat faster and your blood pressure go up. Additionally, smoke-free laws that ban smoking in public places such as workplaces, theaters, and bars and restaurants reduce exposure to secondhand smoke and help some people who smoke to quit, without negative economic effects on restaurants or bars.
Secondhand smoke is the combination of smoke from the burning end of a cigarette and the smoke breathed out by smokers.
Secondhand smoke contains more than 7, chemicals. Hundreds are toxic and about 70 can cause cancer. 1,2,3,4 Since the. Secondhand Smoke Essay Examples. The Danger of Smoking. words. 1 page. An Introduction to the Negative Effects of Secondhand Smoke. words. 1 page. An Analysis of the Banning of Smoking in Public Places and Restaurants.
2, words. 5 pages. An Introduction to the Negative Influences of Secondhand Smoke. words. 2 pages.Download